TEMPO.CO, Beijing - Global stock markets sank Monday after Greece closed its banks and imposed capital controls in a dramatic turn in its struggle with heavy debts.
Oil prices declined and the euro edged down after Athens announced the moves to stanch the flow of money out of Greek banks and pressure creditors to offer concessions before a bailout program expires Tuesday.
Germany's DAX index tumbled 2.9 percent to 11,161.41 points in early trading and France's CAC-40 dived 3.4 percent to 4,887.69. Britain's FTSE 100 dropped 1.6 percent to 6,643.83. Futures augured losses on Wall Street. Dow futures were down 1.1 percent at 17,677.00. S&P 500 futures shed 1.1 percent to 2,073.00.
Greece's Cabinet closed banks for six business days and restricted cash withdrawals. The Athens Stock Exchange was due to be closed Monday. That follows Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras' weekend decision to call a referendum on European and International Monetary Fund proposals for Greek reforms in return for bailout funds.
The accelerating crisis has raised questions about whether Greece might withdraw from the 19-nation euro currency, a move dubbed Grexit.
"Even if a deal is somehow reached, the ability of Greece to implement agreed reforms is doubtful," said IHS Global Insight economist Rajiv Biswas in a report.
Greek withdrawal from the euro could lower Asian economic growth by 0.3 percentage points next year due to disruption in trade and financial markets, Biswas said.
In Asia, the Shanghai Composite Index fell 3.3 percent to 4,053.03 despite China's surprise weekend interest rate cut. Tokyo's Nikkei 225 shed 2.9 percent to 20,109.95.
Hong Kong's Hang Seng fell 2.6 percent to 25,966.98 and Sydney's S&P/ASX 200 was off 2.2 percent at 5,422.50. Seoul's Kospi dropped 1.4 percent to 2,060.49 and India's Sensex declined 1.5 percent to 27,385.05.
The euro slipped to $1.1066 from the previous session's $1.1168. The dollar declined to 122.96 yen from 123.89 yen.
Globally, Greece's brinksmanship with its creditors is unlikely to have the impact of the financial panic set off by the collapse of Lehman Bros. in September 2008, economists said.
"Today, the European banks have shed much of their Greek debt and they have significantly increased their capital," said Mark Zandi, chief economist at Moody's Analytics.
"A Greek default and exit from the euro zone would be devastating to Greece's economy, but no one else's," said Zandi. "So, the Greek standoff will be disconcerting to financial markets, but only temporarily."
The European Central Bank has vowed to do whatever it takes to prevent a financial panic.
The ECB is committed to buying 60 billion euros a month in bonds to push down interest rates and help economies that use the euro. It could buy more and flood financial markets with cash to calm jittery investors.
"They stand ready to do whatever it takes," said Jacob Kirkegaard, senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
China's rate cut, the fourth since November, appeared to be aimed at reassuring investors after a plunge in share prices last week, rather than boosting economic growth, analysts said.
Beijing cut its benchmark lending rate by 0.25 percentage point and freed up money for lending by lowering the reserves banks are required to hold.
The timing is "rather market-friendly" and appears to be meant to "provide a support to the market sentiment," said Credit Suisse economists Dong Tao and Weishen Deng in a report.
In energy markets, U.S. benchmark crude declined $1.11 to $58.52 a barrel in electronic trading on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The contract shed 7 cents in the previous session to close at $59.63. Brent crude, used to price international oils, shed $1.24 cents to $62.02 in London.