Post-Disaster Need Assessment Key to Pandemic Recovery
By Christian B. Usfinit, Team Leader, Resilience and Recovery Unit, UNDP Indonesia
The Covid-19 pandemic has profoundly changed the world as countries struggle to recover from its far-reaching impact, not just on public health, but also on the lives and livelihoods of communities and individuals. Indonesia is one of the countries that mobilized unprecedented resources to respond to and recover from the pandemic with measures covering social and economic sectors. On April 13, 2020, President Joko Widodo officially issued a Decree stating that Covid-19 was a national disaster.
To assist in the long-term recovery of the affected people, it is necessary to understand the full impact of the pandemic. The Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) is an assessment instrument used to assess disaster consequences and impacts, and eventually its recovery needs. In Indonesia this tool is called “JITUPASNA” or “Kajian Kebutuhan Pasca-Bencana” and has been stipulated as a legal evidence-based assessment instruments to provide a basis for a sustainable recovery plans following disasters.
JITUPASNA has been legalized by Peraturan Kepala BNPB 15/2011 (Regulation of Head of National Disaster Management Agency) about Post Disaster Needs Assessment, and then strengthened by BNPB Regulation No. 5/2017 about Post Disaster Recovery Planning (“Rencana Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi Pasca-Bencana” or “R3P”) and BNPB Regulation No. 6/2017 about Post Disaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction.
The impact assessment within JITUPASNA includes identifying and calculating damage, loss, disruption of access, impaired function, and increased risk related to human development, economy, social and cross-sectors. Impact analysis involves reviewing the linkages and aggregate value of a disaster's effects and its general implications for physical and environmental, economic, psychosocial, cultural, political, and governance aspects.
To address the need of an impact assessment of Covid-19 Recovery, UNDP Indonesia through the Response Towards Covid-19 project (RESTORE), in collaboration with BNPB, supported JITUPASNA in 9 provinces, Riau, West Java, East Java, South Kalimantan, West Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara, Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, and Papua. The assessment result of JITUPASNA in these nine provinces is used to formulate Covid-19 recovery plan (Covid-19 R3P) which is evidence-based, inclusive and environmentally sensitive. Three R3Ps in Central Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua have been promulgated by the governor regulation or decree while the legalization process in the remaining provinces is ongoing.
The impact of Covid-19 pandemic is unprecedented. And, so is the use of JITUPASNA as stipulated by BNPB Regulations No. 15/2011 and No. 5/2017. Unlike natural-hazard disaster impact, Covid-19 pandemic is characterized by its macro impacts, beyond defined spatial dimension or sector.
Instead of following linear phases from crisis to recovery, COVID-19 crisis staging is parallel and iterative requiring a parallel deployment of disaster response and recovery measures at the same time. The impact characteristic of pandemic is also unique as it does not trigger heavy infrastructure damages as does by disasters caused by other hazards, such as earthquakes, tsunami or flood.
From the existing instrument, the adjustment was mainly made by reducing the assessment scope into four impact segments which are relevant to the pandemic context, namely loss, disruption of access to basic services, disfunction of governmental and societal services, and risk increase. Also, as mobility is restricted during the pandemic, the data collection method was shifted from paper base into digital tool of Open Data Kit (ODK) collect allowing a faster and safer data collection and analysis.
Aiming at documenting the process of JITUPASNA Covid-19 formulation and piloting as well its lessons learnt, the project has formulated the "JITUPASNA Covid-19 lessons learnt". A series of lessons learnt workshop has been organized, engaging multiple Covid-19 response and recovery. They include representatives from BNPB, targeted Regional agencies for Disaster Management (BPBD), and relevant key line ministries.
JITUPASNA is expected to assist the Government in making the right and fast decisions in pandemic recovery. As Andi Eviana, BNPB's Director for the Socio-Economic and Natural Resources Recovery and Improvement, explained: “There are Government initiatives to strengthen communities’ coping mechanisms, especially in the economic sector, which includes analyzing economic potential and also providing guidance to restore the economy in the affected provinces."
Isnandar, Head of Regional Disaster Management Agency (BPBD) Gorontalo, emphasizes the importance of recognizing the needs of each target groups and provide suitable interventions, particularly vulnerable groups such as women, in formulating the R3P: "Training and skills development for women should identify their talents and interests, so that in the next few years they can run their own business."
The pilot of COVID-19 JITUPASNA and recovery plan enriches the practice and knowledge of multi-hazards disaster impact and need assessment. As crises are becoming more complex, multidimensional, and interconnected such as COVID-19, an adapted assessment instrument to specific hazard plays a key role for a more effective and efficient recovery plan.
The lessons learnt from JITUPASNA Covid-19 implementation highlights the important of data synergy, local government’s ownership, the government’s strategy on knowledge management, active participation of multi-stakeholders, and the integration of R3P into regular development plan. It is to ensure that the recovery plan ensures build back better and safer for the affected population and reduces the inequalities triggered by the pandemic.
Articles published in the “Your Views & Stories” section of en.tempo.co website are personal opinions written by third parties, and cannot be related or attributed to en.tempo.co’s official stance.